LTE – Up to 300 Mbit/s Per Second for Release 9

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardized wireless technology Long Term Evolution (LTE). 3GPP is a consortium of several institutes.



The project also defines standards for other mobile technologies such as HSPA. In December 2009, the Release 9 followed as the second standard, which contained LTE after the year before the release had 8 defines first LTE.


Four independent antennas


LTE Release 9 help you reach computationally up to 326.4 Mbit/s for receiving data (download) and up to 86.4 Mbit/s for sending data (upload).


Compared to 172.8Mbit/s download, which can be reached with Release 8, the theoretical speed was almost doubled. These Technologies make it more possible. As with Release 8, a 16-fold quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is used, a technology that enables more data to be carried on a shaft.


In addition, up to 20 MHz frequency bandwidth used. However, Release 9 is used in contrast to its predecessor up to four independent antennas at the transmitter as the receiver; the same send or receive data. This technology is called MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output).

LTE – Up to 172.6Mbit/s

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardized wireless technology Long Term Evolution (LTE). 3GPP is a consortium of several institutes.


The project also defines standards for other mobile technologies such as HSPA. In Release 8 of the 3GPP LTE in 2008 for the first time defined. Here, speed and technology used were committed.


Different Technologies for Increasing the Data Rate


With Release 8, the theoretical top speed with LTE on 172.8 Mbit/s when receiving data (download) and up to 57.6 Mbit/s is limited to send data.



The speeds are made possible by a number of technical parameters. First, a 16 fold quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is used, a technology that enables more data to be carried on a shaft.


By a plurality of antennas at both transmitters on the receiver side as the speed is increased in both directions as well. This technology is called MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output). On LTE Release 8, two independent antennas are used (2 x 2 MIMO). Essential for the increase in speed is also the frequency bandwidth of the connection. In this case, up to 20 MHz, in order to transmit data.



In reality, the network operators are indeed technology such as MIMO and QAM are available, but there is a lack of sufficient bandwidth. This is spread across multiple network operators, so that in practice 50 to 75Mbit/s are technically feasible in the download.




LTE Standardization

3GPP is initiative responsible for the standardization of LTE mobile technology. 3GPP Stands for Third Generation Partnership project.


The initiative focuses on the standardization of LTE and third generation wireless technologies such as UMTS.


Technical specifications of LTE


In various releases since 1999, the 3GPP initiative has published technical specifications for different areas of mobile communications technology. The release 8 focuses on the standardization of LTE technology and is the most recently completed. In releases 9 AND 10 further standardization of LTE technology are made.


Release 9 is concerned with improvements and enhancements of HSPA and LTE Release 10 defines the technical specifications of LTE-Advanced. For Release 9, the development of the remaining issues to be completed in March 2011. Release 10 is still under development, a completion data is unknown.


About 3GPP


3GPP was created in 1988 with the goal of creating a global mobile applicable third generation system. Practically to the standardization by 3GPP to enable the users to get in as many networks worldwide with the same equipment, the same services as in his home network. The detailed technical specifications are intended to describe all aspects of mobile technology so precise that the mobile devices of all manufacturers without errors on all cellular functions.


The initiative consists of 3GPP Organizational Partners (OPs) and Market Representation Partner (MRP). OP’s are the world’s defining standards bodies in the IT industry: the Association of Radio Industries and Business, Japan (ARIB), the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions, USA (ATIS), the Telecommunications Technology Associations Korea (TTA), the Telecommunications Technology Committee, Japan (TTC) and the China Communications Standards Association (CCSA). About this Organizational Partners worldwide a majority of all mobile operators, manufacturers and regulators is organized in the 3GPP initiative.

LTE – Investments, Costs and Profits

Mobile operators have pulled out of the expensive purchase of UMTS licenses, the expensive construction of UMTS networks and the subsequent price of their teachings battle for customers.


But with LTE, users pay only a fraction of the transmission frequencies. For network construction, the price is the decisive criterion in selecting among the network equipment. And customers for data services in LTE networks will have to pay significantly more than what they have been accustomed to from UMTS networks.



UMTS: The more data, the more cheaper


The mobile plan has a problem; you need to inject more data into ever cheaper prices through their wireless networks. Since the new technology LTE is just right, the cost of production for fast data transmission in mobile communications should be lower. The cost per bit is lower for the network operators from four to ten times more than in HSDPA. This is also related to the fact that through new applied in LTE radio technologies, such as multiple-antenna method MIMO or the new modulation schemes OFDMA, with ten times more. LTE phones can be provided at a location with high speed internet than with UMTS. With LTE, so the profit margin is the mobile data tends to increase and the number of potential customers multiplied at one location.



LTE Expansion Cheaper than UMTS


The cost of the LTE expansion circulates different numbers. The bidding for the frequencies is already certain.


Expenditure incurred in the bidding for the frequencies, the cost for network deployment. The US firm Aircom, a network specialist, estimates that a mobile operator in Central Europe needs to spend about 670 million euros for the LTE network construction in the first year.


Lot of costs should come together after all, it must not only upgraded base stations to LTE or LTE base stations will be built, it must be a new IP-based core network to be created. And finally, the data lines must be upgraded from the base stations to the new core network to process the large amounts of data, because what good is fast wireless network if it only blcks the access to the core network. This looks like a high investment.


Pressure on network equipment


In order to make sense economically, the LTE expansion should cost only a fraction of what was spent on the construction of UMTS network, so the experts explain the Finnnish IT consultancy Rewheel. My solution to this dilemma: The network equipment should rethink their pricing somewhat.


New tariffs: LTE’s are not as bargain


After the business model was not a UMTS rousing success for many years, the mobile operators want LTE would not have to wait due to the investment pays.


And that probably means that they do not just invest less than in the UMTS networks, but they will charge higher prices at the retail level.


LTE is surely not only once at a bargain price.

LTE Smartphones

The first LTE Smartphone brough the Korean company Samsung with model “Craft” on the market, it is from the regional provider MetroPCS LTE in its LTE network in Las Vegas and currently offered in many other urban regions.


The Craft dominated the radion data technology LTE and common in the US technology of the third generation mobile CDMA 2000. The latter is also urgently needed, as is still the problem of voice transmission through LTE unresolved. Must the “Craft”, when a phone call is made, switch to the CDMA network. Then abort the current download and it can simultaneously send and receive in two technologies and the unit now not even. In short: if you surf and there is a phone call, you can fly from the Internet.


According to the manufacturers and mobile operators 2011 is the year of LTE smartphones. This applies first of all to the market in the U.S. Here is the LTE rollout in the area so far advanced that there are enough customers for such devices.


Besides the already mentioned Craft by Samsung, there are no Metro PCS, a second LTE smartphone of the Korean Samsung “Galaxy Indulge”.


The “Thunderbolt”, were announced as the new LTE Smartphone by the Taiwanese company HTC, and the US. Mobile phone manufacture Motorola model “Bionic” and the Korean LG model “Revolution”.


Tips for LTE Smartphones


And LTE Smartphone should be proficient in addition to the latest and fastest data transfer technology, the transmission in UMTS networks including HSPA(and possibly HSPA+) with GPRS and EDGE and GSM networks in the second generation mobile. It must be as quickly as possible. Finally, it will take years for the LTE networks everywhere. And many customers want apart from the major urban centers to the mobile internet.


When purchasing a LTE Smartphone, an important point is to know the telephone solution. This equipment is recommended to perform without net change, when you call out. However, currently, it’s not yet clear when devices will have this capability on the market.


What is GSM?

The acronym GSM is a mobile communications system and means “Global System for Mobile Communications”. GSM supports data rates of max. 14.4 kbit / s GSM is the successor system of A, B and C networks and is commercially available in Germany since 1992.

The Global System for Mobile Communications (formerly Groupe Spécial Mobile, GSM) is a standard for fully digital mobile networks, which is used mainly for telephony, but also for circuit switched and packet-switched data transmission and text messages (short messages). It is the first standard of the so-called second generation (“2G”), replacing the analog systems of the first generation (in Germany: A-line, B-grid and C-grid) and is the world’s most popular wireless standard.

What is UMTS (UMTS broadband, 3G)?

The acronym stands for UMTS “Universal Mobile Telecommunication System”. UMTS is a mobile system with speeds of max. 384 kbit / s UMTS is the successor of GSM and commercially available since 2004 in Germany.

The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a wireless standard of the third generation (3G), with significantly higher data rates (up to 21 Mbit / s HSPA +, otherwise max. 384 kbit / s) than with the wireless standard of the second generation (2G ), the GSM standard (up to 220 kbit / s in EDGE;. otherwise max is 55 kbit / s in GPRS), possible.

The ITU had UMTS selected for IMT-2000, and it is therefore one of the standards for the third generation mobile communications. Originally, the ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) had standardized UMTS, today the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) maintains it further. The standard is constantly being expanded, for example, increased the maximum HSDPA receive data rate (downlink). For the transmit data rate comparable with HSUPA technology is available.


What is EDGE?

EDGE means “Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution” and is a transmission technique in GSM networks, the transmission rate can be increased theoretically up to 220 kbit/s.

Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) refers to a technique for increasing the data transmission rate in GSM networks by introducing an additional modulation method. GPRS with EDGE data services to E-GPRS (Enhanced GPRS) and HSCSD be extended to ECSD.

EDGE represents an evolution of the GSM technology represents It is basically a GSM with more bits per baud. [1] EDGE with moderate effort can be integrated into mobile networks as it does not disturb the already existing mobile telephony. Essentially, it is necessary to update the software of the GSM base station and optionally to replace individual components.


What is GPRS?

GPRS is “General Packet Radio Service” and is a service between UMTS and GSM networks of permanent connection to devices sustains and transmits data packets only when necessary.

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) (German: “General packet radio service”), the name given to the packet-based service for data transmission in GSM networks.

If GPRS is activated, only virtually, there is a permanent connection to the remote site (the so-called always-on mode). Only when real data is transmitted, the radio room is occupied, otherwise it is free for other users. Therefore, no permanent radio channel needs (as with CSD) reserved for a user to be. GPRS bills are therefore mainly dependent on the quantity of data transferred rather than connect time. However, this is also dependent on the particular contract terms with the operator.

Unlike the circuit-switched (English circuit switched) CSD data service GPRS is packet-oriented. That is, the data are converted at the transmitter into individual packets, transmitted as such, and the receiver re-assembled.

What is HSUPA?

HSUPA means “High Speed Uplink Packet Access” and is a technique used in the UMTS mobile communication system, the upload speeds up to 5.8 Mbit/s.

High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is a transmission method of the UMTS mobile radio standard that allows higher data rates in the uplink and reduces the round trip time (often referred to as ping). HSUPA Category 6 were up to 5.76 Mbit / s and category 9 (Release 9) up to 23 Mbit / s can be achieved. HSUPA is part of Release 9 of UMTS.


What is HSDPA?

HSDPA means “High Speed Downlink Packet Access” and is a technique used in the UMTS mobile communication system, the download speeds of currently 3.6 Mbit/s to 7.2 Mbit/s. HSUPA is developed commercially since 2007 in Germany.

High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA, 3.5G, 3G + or UMTS broadband) is a data transmission method of the cellular standards UMTS, which was defined by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project. The method enables DSL-like data rates in mobile networks.

HSDPA is available in Germany, among others by the network operators Vodafone, E-Plus, O2, and telecom and in Switzerland by Swisscom, Sunrise and Orange. In Austria operate the A1, T-Mobile, Orange and Three HSDPA networks.

What is LTE?

LTE means “Long Term Evolution” and a mobile radio system with very high data rates. Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a wireless standard of the fourth generation (4G standard), which can carry up to 300 megabits per second to achieve much higher download speeds. Someone may ask, in the wireless phone abbreviation 4g, what does the “g” stand for?  The answer is “g” stand for Generation. The GSM, GPRS and EDGE are 2G (second generation)networks, UMTS/WCDMA/HSPA+/DC-HSPA+ are 3G(third generation) networks, LTE(TD-LTE/FDD) is 4G(Forth generation) network.The basic scheme of UMTS LTE is maintained. Enables rapid and cost-effective retrofitting the infrastructure of the UMTS technology (3G standard) on LTE-Advanced is possible. LTE-Advanced is backward compatible to LTE.